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Even in places where the boycott took place as planned, the Nazis quickly discovered that it was not always easy to decide if a business was Jewish-owned. There was no legal definition of who was a Jew and who was not. Also, many Jews had non-Jewish business partners, and nearly all had non-Jewish employees. Were those businesses to be closed as well? For example, Tietz, a chain of department stores in Berlin owned by Jews, had more than 14, employees, almost all of whom were non-Jews. At a time when unemployment was high and the economy fragile, did the Nazis really want to put those workers out of a job?
In the end, the Nazis allowed Tietz to remain open—at least for the time being. The boycott did succeed, however, in one of its goals: it terrorized Jews throughout Germany. Edwin Landau described what it was like in his hometown in West Prussia. In the morning hours the Nazi guards began to place themselves in front of the Jewish shops and factories, and every shopper was warned not to buy from the Jews.
In front of our business, also, two young Nazis posted themselves and prevented customers from entering. To me the whole thing seemed inconceivable. It would not sink in that something like that could even be possible in the twentieth century, for such things had happened, at most, in the Middle Ages. And for this nation we young Jews had once stood in the trenches in cold and rain, and spilled our blood to protect the land from the enemy.
Was there no comrade any more from those days who was sickened by these goings-on? One saw them pass by on the street, among them quite a few for whom one had done a good turn. They had a smile on their face that betrayed their malicious pleasure. I took my war decorations, put them on, went into the street, and visited Jewish shops, where at first I was also stopped. But I was seething inside, and most of all I would have liked to shout my hatred into the faces of the barbarians.
Hatred, hatred—when had it become a part of me? This land and this people that until now I had loved and treasured had suddenly become my enemy. So I was not a German anymore, or I was no longer supposed to be one. That, of course, cannot be settled in a few hours. In considering factors accounting for terror levels, it is clear that in Italy the police, though gaining greater autonomy from the judiciary, remained accountable to a legal system that was authoritarian but did not match up to the totalitarian designs of the most radical Fascists.
It embodied racial theories that from the late thirties onwards allowed the imposition of restrictions on the rights and movements of Jews, for example, but not their extermination It is evident that during the Second World War onwards, the regime put forward plans for more radical forms of repression that would involve the police.
This included the permanent removal from society of habitual criminals incapable of rehabilitation , and the creation of concentration camps specifically for Jews While the Fascist regime of never put such plans into practice, policemen were expected to engage in inhumane acts under the Italian Social Republic, created in September , following the Nazi occupation of Central and Northern Italy.
Erwin Rommel - Wikiquote
Under the control of newly appointed Fascist Party police chiefs, many were involved, directly or indirectly, in atrocities against partisans and the deportation of Jews to Nazi death camps. There was a notably high level of dissociation from the Social Republic within the police. Yet, high desertion rates are no sure indication that the police would not have supported or complied with a terror system had it been set up in different circumstances. A refusal to engage in atrocities partly accounts for desertions. However, they were also a result of an overriding desire for self-preservation in the face of impending military defeat.
Many Carabinieri deserted in view of Nazi plans to deport them to Germany If the Weimar political police, for example, had functioned under the legal constraints of a democratic state, an ability to behave ruthlessly came easily to ex-members of the political police transferred into the Gestapo in Graf argues that when Hitler came to power, Abteilung 1A actively assisted in the preparation, execution and safeguarding of the Nazi takeover.
The Gestapo was associated with terror well before the SS gained control over it Yet, even within the Gestapo , a certain amount of psychological training in radical policing was required. It was not difficult to create a situation in which the idea of such forms of policing was acceptable, especially if they were entrusted to others.
The exploitation of rivalry between police forces, without creating serious conflict between them, also served as a means of inducing the employment of terror. Severin Roeseling argues that the Kriminalpolizei and Gestapo competed in radical forms of policing in their efforts to fulfil the growing demands of the political leadership Wagner also indicates that Himmler encouraged competition between the two corps in fighting homosexuality in order to achieve maximum results Yet, Johnson argues that in rural communities, the regular police persecuted Communists and non-conformists and deported Jews, without the need to call in the Gestapo On the basis of her research on the Schutzpolizei and administrative police of Cologne, Rossol argues that an already existing administrative apparatus provided the Nazis with an instrument for persecuting Jews.
Under the direction of a non-Nazi Catholic civil servant appointed to the Cologne police presidency after the Von Papen Putsch, the police targeted the Jews as a distinct group in society in and This also involved a census of Jewish shops, pubs and restaurants, which would play a crucial part in the destruction of Jewish property during the pogrom of November The administrative police collaborated and co-operated with the Gestapo in anti-Jewish policies without any serious difficulties or friction.
Whilst a few members resigned, most deluded themselves that they were not acting inhumanely by clinging to a false image, which the Nazi leadership had built up, of a professional police force honoured and trusted by the people, and denied anything more than a formal link with the SS-SD. The period of the civil war and the years immediately following the cessation of hostilities were years of extreme terror, characterized by around , executions, by the most recent estimates , whilst , individuals spent time in prison, concentration camps or labour squads Legislative measures sanctioned the terror.
A combination of scientific theory and Catholic doctrine arguing that Liberals and Communists carried the traits of physical, psychological and racial degeneration that only national and Christian purification could cure aimed to justify it morally The civil war experience undoubtedly increased psychological acceptance levels of the more systematic employment of extreme violence.
The involvement of the Gestapo in training the police suggests, however, that they received instruction in more sophisticated methods of brutality. According to Gallo, from Himmler initiated collaboration between the German and Spanish police.
He states that by It had learnt the art of infiltration into underground networks, of waiting before pouncing, of setting traps, and it had adopted many of the techniques of interrogation after arrest, with graduated degrees of violence, which might lead a prisoner to break down and confess, or to commit suicide. Former members of the German police or the French militia had been more or less officially engaged by Spanish police organizations, which could take their pick among the many refugees who had come into Spain While there were fewer shootings, for example, during strikes and demonstrations, there were a significant number of cases of the police brutally torturing individuals in their custody For Nazi Germany, Gellately has emphasized the reliance of a relatively undermanned Gestapo organization on the help of the German public The apparent lack of denunciations in Fascist Italy has recently been the object of reappraisal.
Mason appeared to have based his argument on research on the working class of Turin. It is plausible that close-knit working class communities with a strong subversive tradition may have been less permeable to betrayal. Recent research by Mimmo Franzinelli suggests that a considerable number of Italians denounced their fellow citizens to the benefit of the police. If there is a distinction between Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, it possibly lies in the fact that a much higher percentage of Italian citizens denounced anonymously However, it is likely that, in comparison with Spain, a lower proportion of citizens spied on and denounced their neighbours in Germany and Italy, given the less dramatic circumstances in which the Nazi and Fascist regimes came to power.
This particularly regards the policing of the working classes. Although strikes and demonstrations became illegal, the regimes concerned did not automatically deal with them in a harsh manner. In Fascist Italy the police were often reluctant to do anything more than arrest the main promoters when work stoppages took place. Following practices more reminiscent of the Liberal state, they sometimes took measures to alleviate the cause of disputes and to encourage mediation In both Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, the authorities appeared to attempt to strike a balance between repression and concession, the latter seen as necessary to win round the workers to the political cause of the regimes concerned.
Richards suggests that, though in the very early years of the Francoist regime strike organisers could face execution without trial, from the mid-forties Spanish workers were on occasion able to stage protests without excessive harassment from the police. In January , the first general strike of the Franco era took place in Manresa Barcelona. The action resulted in a wage rise Johnson argues that, as long as they were upright members of the Volksgemeinschaft , German citizens who gave vent to their daily frustrations, even by openly criticising Hitler and the Nazi regime, rarely faced severe punishment Though the above points require further substantiation, they are significant in that they suggest that the exceptional powers of control given to dictatorial police systems were not used to their full potential and that more traditional methods of policing based on mediation and concession were sometimes employed in their place.
On the other hand, it is possible to draw tentatively some parallels between the Nazi, Francoist and Fascist policing systems or between two of the three systems in terms of their development, though more research is required in order to substantiate this. There are clear similarities in the motives for police support of fascist movements. During periods leading up to the creation of right-wing dictatorships police forces faced serious law and order crises that bolstered their anti-Marxist, authoritarian mentality and turned them against democratic forms of government.
This attitude was also a result of the introduction of ambiguous reforms in the police. In many spheres of policing, it is not always easy to identify a clean break in continuity between fascist policing methods and those of previous regimes, when examined from the point of view of the individual police task, and this facilitated the ability of professional policemen to adapt to the more radical requirements of the dictatorships.
Both pre-existing ideological beliefs and career opportunism played some role in obtaining compliance in this. Many policemen may have been disposed towards hard-line repression including atrocities , having also emerged from recent experiences of violence in which they had already made enemies out of those groups that would be the subsequent focus or part of the focus of repression under the dictatorships. It is likely that the brutalizing effects of war both conditioned police support of authoritarian political stances and facilitated the job of purging society after the rise to power of the extreme Right.
In Weimar Germany and pre-Fascist Italy, the employment of large numbers of demobilized soldiers and, perhaps more crucially, officers in the police may have determined an excessively confrontational attitude towards law and order maintenance, exacerbating the divide between highly militarized police forces on the one hand and civilian society on the other. In Spain, the brutalizing experience of the war undoubtedly facilitated the violent purge of society that took place after the Nationalists gained control of territory and continued after the official the cessation of hostilities in April Both fascist and Liberal regimes may have employed military-type tactics directly inspired by recent war experience , though we should not confuse such tactics with those more traditionally associated with military policing.
Moreover, limited research appears to have been conducted more specifically on what the creation of right-wing dictatorships meant for the policing of ordinary crime in Italy and Spain. Future analysis needs to involve where possible a greater understanding of the interpretations that policemen themselves gave to their roles, in relation not only to their ideological beliefs but also to their treatment as employees of professional bodies.
Ambrosio, P. Barile, P. Bessel, R. Eds , Policing Western Europe. Blaney, G. Broszat, M. Browder, G. Brzezinski, Z. Buchheim, H.
Strategic approaches adopted by the British and French in the Spanish Civil War
Canosa, R. Carucci, P. Cifuentes Chueca, J. Collin, R. Collotti, E. Di Castro, D.
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Donati, L. Dunnage, J. Evans, R. Franzinelli, M. Gallo, M. A History , London, Allen and Unwin, Gellately, R. Enforcing Racial Policy, , Oxford, Clarendon, Gilmour, D. Graf, C. Johnson, E. Kershaw, I. Baveria , Oxford, Clarendon, Koehl, R. Eds , Patterns of Provocation. Liang, H. Lyttelton, A. Fattori costanti e fattori congiunturali, in Casali L. Le origini del fascismo, Bologna, Cappelli, , pp. Mason, T. Neppi Modona, G. Annali Payne, S. Peukert, D. Preston, P. Reichardt, S. Richards, M. Eds , Spanish Cultural Studies. Risques Corbella, M. Roeseling, S. Eds , Wessen Freund und Wessen Helfer?
Rossol, N. Roth, T. Salerno, L. Savella, I.
Schwarzenberg, C. Tosatti, G. Wagner, P. For crime levels, see Di Castro , pp. For details, see Lyttelton , p. For an example of the previously confrontational relationship between the German police and the public, see Evans Recruits to the Schutzpolizei were mainly skilled artisans, office employees, but also included peasants and a small percentage of factory workers. See also Tosatti a, b. For detailed analysis of changes in the judicial sphere, see Schwarzenberg , pp. For a detailed analysis of the application of laws mainly affecting women abortion, adultery, infanticide, etc.
For the origins of rank-and-file officers of the Gestapo , see Liang , pp. All seems lost for the Allies. The Italians are defeated at Caporette, and a Bolshevik Russia pulls out of the war. But the American reinforcements are decisive, and the Allies emerge victorious. Looking for something really scary to watch?
Go there A gripping and shocking documentary composed of numerous colorized archive footage. Apocalypse: Verdun takes us to the infamous and bloody battle of Verdun that occurred in February , when World War I had been raging for two years. The documentary is composed exclusively of actual footage of the war as filmed by war Chronicles Hitler's life as a failed painter and far-right activist up to his election as Chancellor of Germany, leading to his relentless rise to power, culminating in the beginning of World War II.
The rise of Stalin, from his early beginning as a bankrobber to the cold-blooded leader of the Soviet Union. Immersive and evocative, it takes viewers inside the Germany of the Documentary using computer colorized footage from World War I to give the audience the feel of how it really looked back during the war. One of the greatest achievements of television -broadcast from in 26 episodes. Use of extensive archive footage and sound effects, linked with contemporary classic music of that area.
Follow the lives of soldiers who lived World War II, through previously unseen color footage. Vintage footage from the Vietnam war is presented in High Definition video format along with narration from both war veterans and Hollywood voice talent. The documentary follows key events This was the deadliest year of WW2. Colorized historical footage in ascending order of World War 1. This Canadian documentary adds modern sound and music with the crude film of the era in a perfect blend of drama and poignancy. We are shown the roots of the war; the contemporary European peace that existed on the continent from along with the simmering tensions among the major European powers of the age.
Done in a way that is never trite nor dull, "Apocalypse" explains what happened in the first "great war" of the clash of ideologies, the futility, the mass deaths in the new age of conscript soldiers, and the ultimate futility of it all in a world war that left 10 million soldiers dead. Probably the penultimate World war 1 documentary.
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Who was Martin Monath?
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