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Against the current Zhadnovian line of the French Communist Party, Mascolo separated art from politics, attesting that both could be revolutionary, but that these two spheres moved at different speeds, and the two struggles were tangentially related. This position is close to the accord between Breton and Trotsky, in which all art was agreed to be emancipatory as it intrinsically liberated expression, even if the content of the work was not itself explicitly political.
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Bataille was privileged as a thinker of transgressions that could be deployed dialectically to subvert the current order and inaugurate a cultural revolution — a position Bataille himself would have fundamentally refused. For a while, terroristically complex and experimental literary and theoretical texts were seen by Philippe Sollers and Julia Kristeva as the intellectual transgressions that could provoke a revolutionary consciousness. Foucault and Blanchot both wrote critiques of attempts to dialecticize cultural transgression into a revolutionary program: as a result, Foucault would henceforth be a silent absence from Tel Quel, whereas Blanchot would later be viciously attacked by Sollers as a belated return for his criticisms.
Barthes, Foucault, Blanchot and Derrida had all left the Critique editorial board by , and the journal would never again be at the cutting edge of French thought. Michel Surya Paris: Gallimard, , and Pierre Nora formed the influential revue Le Debat in with the 27 For the prevalence of an attitude of resistance, see Jeffrey T. On the need to boost consumption via subcultural produce, see, for example, Bernard Stiegler, Taking Care of Youth and the Generations, trans. See also Lignes 18 devoted to Pasolini.
This initially hardly concerned the legacies of Bataille and Blanchot directly, but the shifts in the intellectual landscape, marginalizing the French theory generation, provided the terrain for those aggravated by their continued prominence to launch a more frontal assault.
The Past is Present : Dumping, Democracy, and Les Droits in Vanuatu
Intellectual fascism was suspected everywhere, and so the spotlight began to be cast on other thinkers in this intellectual lineage who held dubious political commitments in the s, Bataille and Blanchot coming high on the list. Moreover, neither shared much with the pre-war Blanchot: 34 Marmande, Le pur bonheur, In America the drive against theory was part of a wider rise of neo-conservative figures in the academy attempting to impose a new political hegemony.
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Some saw them as overstating the case somewhat. By the turn of the new millennium, however, the Bataille debate becomes much less polemic and, as a result, the two Lignes issues devoted to Bataille are more academic than conflictual. Another reason is that Bataille scholarship has itself has become more restrained. This is a wholly ontological, and no longer moral or political conception of transgression, and the prevalence of this approach is also symptomatic of the rise of Jean-Luc Nancy over the last few years, being at present one of the most famous exports of the French intellectual scene.
Katherine Lydon, Yale French Studies, 78 , 47—65 That the Mascolo dossier has not been republished and translated may explain the lack of attention he has received from the Anglophone academy, especially as the first series of Lignes is out of print. The French original was lost, but there remained an Italian translation, which Nancy translated back into French in , Lignes publishing it alongside the recently re-found Blanchot original in October Writing of Berlin, geographically fragmented after the erection of the Wall, Blanchot uses it as an exemplary case in which the totality of an object can only be apprehended via a fragmentary approach.
He seems to be meditating on these themes ten years later, roughly contemporaneous with the publication of Le Sens du monde In a text republished by Lignes, included in the Frammenti- Interfacce-Intervalli catalogue , we can see how his meditation on the fragmentary form came to inflect his entire conception of sense creation. Conclusion The sketch of the previous 80 years of French intellectual culture given here is obviously partial in many respects: looking at responses to Bataille and Blancot inevitably skews the kinds of work under discussion, and orienting the debate around the position of Lignes evidently privileges a marginal, yet important milieu at the expense of others.
Yet I hope to have at least suggested the material and theoretical contours of some key shifts in French thought: from the turbulent extremism from both left and right in the s, to Sartrean engagement giving way to more heterodox Marxism in the s, and the subsequent backlash from onwards, producing a seemingly inexorable drift to the right since; an obsession with transgression, derived from the surrealists and again culminating in the s, shifting to a more moralistic and religious tone at the turn of the millennium; and the varied fortunes of Bataille, Blanchot and French theory which, though marginalized in France from the s, still has some intellectual successors in the likes of Jean-Luc Nancy.
Rosalind Kraus, October, 55 , 3— Lignes, first series vol. Katherine Lydon, Yale French Studies, 78 , 47— Related Papers. Lignes: Intellectual circle, or intellectual spacing? The French revue into the twenty-first century.
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Vanuatu : oscillation entre diversité et unité
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