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  1. Romance Journal uses feelings as a device to express social responsibility
  2. L'Histoire de la Romance Russe, Vol. 1
  3. At Home | Pure Romance: Peonies & Carrara in a French Country Cottage
  4. Previous Work with Media and Relationship Beliefs

You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Bjarne Holmes. Holmes, Ph. Holmes hw. These findings held even while taking into account the influence of participant gender and relationship experiences. The utility of both cultivation and social-cognitive theory for explaining the initial findings and for future work are discussed. More extensive research is called for. The notion that one can find a romantic partner that fits perfectly with preconceived standards is an unrealistic view that fails to take into account the work required to develop and maintain a healthy and loving relationship Baucom, et al.

Given this popularity of media for information about love, we need to begin to explore if ideas about romance and relationships portrayed in media are related to ideas held by individuals. This research note presents exploratory work on the topic. In contrast, Knee et al.


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Extensive research on dysfunctional relationship beliefs e. In general, women and men endorse these types of relationship beliefs to the same degree see, e. Relationship destiny in popular media Little work has been done on the romance-related content of popular media, and more extensive content analyses are called for. Previous work with media and relationship beliefs Only a handful of studies have previously looked for any potential relationship between romantic relationship variables and media variables. Segrin and Nabi found a significant positive association between consumption of romance-oriented television and idealized expectations of marriage.

Shapiro and Kroeger found a weak but significant relationship between unrealistic relationship beliefs and romantic novel and comedy movie consumption. None of these studies directly addressed the potential relationship between media and beliefs related to romantic destiny. Unlike the traditional use of cultivation theory, this work is more in-line with those studying differential cultivation effects e. Perse, Ferguson, and McLeod argue that cultivation of specific attitudes appears to be related to consumption of specific genres, rather than undifferentiated media consumption.

However, the current work defines romance-oriented media more broadly than simply television concerning relationships. Theory about differential cultivation effects still does not address the potential effects of non-television media. Just as television has become more specialized and fragmented, other media sources have become ever more important sources of information and entertainment e. The application of social cognitive theory e. The theory demonstrates how individuals observe media characters and the consequences for their actions, learn what those consequences suggest for what is valued or deemed appropriate in society and what is not , and consider that information in the formation of their own attitudes and the enactment of their behavior.

Bandura notes, for instance, that individuals may find verification of beliefs and behavior in media portrayals, which often contain distortions of the social world, thereby leading the individual to inaccurate conclusions. Such testing of the mechanisms is beyond the scope of this work.

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Romance Journal uses feelings as a device to express social responsibility

RQ2: Does a relationship between romance media preference and beliefs about relationship destiny stand even when taking into account gender and relationship experience variables? Social cognitive theory e. Yet, that lesson is not singular, but rather is likely to be different for different audience members, shaped by their preference for the media form in question, their conceptions of the attractiveness of the depictions of romance, and their own values and prior notions on the topic. Therefore, while we are not testing the function of the processes of the theory per se, we are considering the potential contribution that non-media related variables such as gender and relationship experiences may play on both preference for media and relationship beliefs.

Method Participants Two hundred ninety-four undergraduate students from a large public university in the Northeast USA participated in exchange for extra credit in their psychology class 84 men and women; average age Measures Romance media preference. Motion pictures included in the official genre romantic comedy were chosen from several Internet ratings of the most popular romantic comedies over time.

Magazines were chosen from descriptions of content taken from various listings of the most popular magazines. A panel of six undergraduate students three males and three females first independently, then collectively, made suggestions on additional content to add and on content to remove from the lists.

Vintage Café Vol. 6 - Romantic Lounge & Jazz Blends

The final lists are presented in Appendix A. A global preference for romance media score was created by aggregating all individual item scores for television programming, motion pictures, and magazines i. Belief in predestined soul mates. Romance Media and Relationship Destiny 9 Dysfunctional beliefs related to relationship destiny. Procedure The measures were administered separately to groups of 35 to 50 at a time.

Rigorous means were used to ensure that each participant felt entirely comfortable during the study e. Informed consent was obtained. There was however no relationship between preference for romance- media and belief in sexual perfectionism. There were however no significant relationships between relationship experiences and preference for romance-oriented media. We asked if the relationship between romance media and beliefs would stand even when taking into account the contribution of gender and relationship experience variables.

Given the associations with gender found in the univariate analysis, the potential interaction between gender and romance-oriented media was tested in the multivariate analysis. Perhaps the results would indicate that the relationship between preference for media and beliefs would vary in accordance with the gender of the participant, even while taking into account their relationship experiences.

Continuous predictor variables were centered and an interaction term was created in accordance with Aiken and West Hierarchical multiple regressions were employed and values for all regressions are shown in Table 2. Step 1 accounted for no variance. Likewise, for the belief that mind reading is expected in a relationship, Step 1 accounted for no variance. Likewise, for the belief in Sexual Perfectionism, Step 1 accounted for no variance. Yet, the general topic of romance and the media remains severely under explored. Although many would anecdotally agree that romantic themes prevail in much popular media content, thorough systematic content analyses on the topic are much needed.

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The current work extends the scant literature on romance and media by providing exploratory evidence on this particular topic. Given the social significance that learning from the media may have for the formation of relationship-related attitudes, we call for extensive research into this area.

Knee et al. A number of researchers have argued that popular media might be a potential source of dysfunctional beliefs about relationships e. The current study found an association between belief in predestined soul mates and preference for romance media, even while taking into account other non media-related variables such as the gender of the participant, current relationship status, and number of recent relationships.

However, belief in sexual perfectionism was not associated with preference for romance media, but was, rather, positively associated with male gender. One interpretation of this finding is that romance-oriented media may focus more strongly on the ideally romantic nature of relationships as opposed to sexuality and that males are more socialized towards expectations of sexual perfection. It may also be that there are differences in sexual experiences that we could not account for in this exploratory work because we asked about relationship experiences and not sexual experiences within those relationships.

Future work should clarify both romantic experiences as well as sexual experiences in relation to beliefs about sexual perfectionism. Given the exploratory nature of the research, caution needs to be taken in drawing conclusions from the findings. Instead the findings should be used as a starting point from which to do more extensive research on this topic. Though both cultivation theory e. Future research needs to be designed to test the specific processes that may lie behind the relationships found in this data.

However, past research has shown that cultivation of specific attitudes may be related to consumption of specific genres, rather than undifferentiated television consumption e. Hence, in line-with the differential cultivation effects approach e. However, cultivation theory, as traditionally used, does not lend itself easily to incorporating non- television media into the research, nor to asking how variables such as preference for, or liking of, media may influence exposure.

Indeed, the theory provides a potentially sound explanation for how media function as sources of cultural information about relationships and shape the formation of attitudes about romance as well as subsequent behavior.

L'Histoire de la Romance Russe, Vol. 1

To test the theory more precisely, we suggest that future work focus on assessing individual differences that may influence how and why an individual prefers romance media, how those differences may influence how much the individual exposes themselves to that type of media, if and how preconceptions may influence how the individual attends to, retains, and interprets the messages in the media, and if and how individual traits in people influence how they incorporate media messages into their own romantic lives Bandura, The study focused on college students because people in this particular age group tend to be avid popular media consumers, and there is no reason to assume that these preliminary findings would generalize to an older sample.

People might become increasingly wiser to unrealistic messages portrayed in popular media as they have more actual relationship experiences themselves, although interestingly we did not find relationship experience related to these dysfunctional beliefs. The potential for bidirectional influence—the pre-existence of beliefs about relationships leads to exposure to romantic media and exposure to romantic media reinforces beliefs about relationships—should also be explored using a combination of correlational and experimental designs.

While we are excited about the future of such work, we are reserved in terms of what can be concluded based on these initial exploratory findings. We do, however, hope that preliminary work will inspire others to carry this line of research forward. Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Bachen, C. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 13, Bandura, A.

Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Social cognitive theory of mass communication. Zillmann Eds. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Identification as a process of incidental learning. Imitation of film-mediated aggressive models. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 66, Baucom, D. Cognitive-behavioral marital therapy. Cognitions in marriage: The relationship between standards and attributions.

Journal of Family Psychology, 10, Learn More Tagged ancestry. Here are a few practical tips on how to handle potentially sensitive Learn More Tagged ancestrydna shared matches , cousin relationships , dna analysis , dna parents , dna test results , dna testing for genealogy , how to find genetic cousins , how to use dna results , sibling dna , world war 2 , world war ii Leave a comment Making Peace with the Past: Adding a New Grandfather to Her Tree Sunny Jane Morton May 17, updated on May 14, One researcher grapples with a family secret unearthed by DNA test results—and how it might explain another family tragedy.

So which ones have the most specific results? Download these free genealogy e-books below to explore a specific subject and get your genealogy research started. Download marriage records, birth records, census forms, and other free forms. Your minute dose of genealogy resources, tips and fun, hosted by Lisa Louise Cooke. Toggle navigation. David A. Fryxell June 27, updated on June 27, June 27 is National Sunglasses Day! Learn More. Leave a comment. Fryxell June 25, updated on June 25, Dig deeper in your research to find hidden gems at these four free and underused genealogy websites.

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At Home | Pure Romance: Peonies & Carrara in a French Country Cottage

Tagged genealogy crafts , genealogy fun , gifts , photo crafts , share family history 2 Comments. Author: David A. Fryxell June 23, updated on June 26, June 23 is National Typewriter Day! Tagged heirlooms , history , history matters Leave a comment. The theory demonstrates how individuals observe media characters and the consequences for their actions, learn what those consequences suggest for what is valued or deemed appropriate in society and what is not , and consider that information in the formation of their own attitudes and the enactment of their behavior.

Because direct contact with others in one's own environment is likely to be constrained to largely the same set of people each day, the media outweigh those other sources in shaping social reality because they broaden what individuals can observe Bandura, Bandura notes, for instance, that individuals may find verification of beliefs and behavior in media portrayals, which often contain distortions of the social world, thereby leading the individual to inaccurate conclusions. Such testing of the mechanisms is beyond the scope of this work.

RQ2: Does a relationship between romance media preference and beliefs about relationship destiny stand even when taking into account gender and relationship experience variables? Social cognitive theory Bandura, postulates that individuals observe models of behavior and may take from them a central, generative lesson about romance. Yet, that lesson is not singular, but rather is likely to be different for different audience members, shaped by their preference for the media form in question, their conceptions of the attractiveness of the depictions of romance, and their own values and prior notions on the topic.

Therefore, while we are not testing the function of the processes of the theory per se, we are considering the potential contribution that non-media related variables such as gender and relationship experiences may play on both preference for media and relationship beliefs. Two hundred ninety-four undergraduate students from a large public university in the Northeast USA participated in exchange for extra credit in their psychology class 84 men and women; average age Romance media preference.

Motion pictures included in the official genre romantic comedy were chosen from several Internet ratings of the most popular romantic comedies over time. Magazines were chosen from descriptions of content taken from various listings of the most popular magazines. A panel of six undergraduate students three males and three females first independently, then collectively, made suggestions on additional content to add and on content to remove from the lists.

The final lists are presented in the Appendix. A global preference for romance media score was created by aggregating all individual item scores for television programming, motion pictures, and magazines i. Belief in predestined soul mates. Using a separate but representative college sample,a measure was created to assess participants' belief in predestined soul mates. Dysfunctional beliefs related to relationship destiny. Cronbach's Alpha for the subscales used in the current study was. The measures were administered separately to groups of 35 to 50 at a time.

Rigorous means were used to ensure that each participant felt entirely comfortable during the study e. Informed consent was obtained. We asked if preference for romance media would be related to people's beliefs about destiny in relationships. There was however no relationship between preference for romance media and belief in sexual perfectionism. RQ2: Romance media preference and beliefs about relationship destiny while taking into account gender and relationship experience variables. There were however no significant relationships between relationship experiences and preference for romance media.

We asked if the relationship between romance media and beliefs would stand even when taking into account the contribution of gender and relationship experience variables. Given the associations with gender found in the univariate analysis, the potential interaction between gender and romance media was tested in the multivariate analysis. Perhaps the results would indicate that the relationship between preference for media and beliefs would vary in accordance with the gender of the participant, even while taking into account their relationship experiences.


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  8. Continuous predictor variables were centered and a romance media preference X gender interaction term was created in accordance with Aiken and West Hierarchical multiple regressions were employed and values for all regressions are shown in Table 2. Belief in predestined soul mates , mind reading is expected in a relationship, and sexual perfectionism were independently regressed on current relationship status and number of recent relationships Step 1 , gender and romance media preference Step 2 , and the interaction of gender X romance media preference Step 3.

    Step 1 accounted for no variance. Romance media preference X gender Step 3 did not account for any significant amount of variation above that explained at Step 2. Likewise, for the belief that mind reading is expected in a relationship , Step 1 accounted for no variance.

    Previous Work with Media and Relationship Beliefs

    As with the previous analysis, romance media preference X gender Step 3 did not account for any significant amount of the variance beyond that explained at Step 2. Likewise, for the belief in sexual perfectionism , Step 1 accounted for no variance. Romance media preference X gender Step 3 did not account for any significant amount of the variance beyond that explained at Step 2. Yet, the general topic of romance and the media remains severely under explored. Although many would anecdotally agree that romantic themes prevail in much popular media content, thorough systematic content analyses on the topic are much needed.

    The current work extends the scant literature on romance and media by providing exploratory evidence on this particular topic. Given the social significance that learning from the media may have for the formation of relationship-related attitudes, we call for extensive research into this area. Knee et al. The current study found an association between belief in predestined soul mates and preference for romance media, even while taking into account other non media-related variables such as the gender of the participant, current relationship status, and number of recent relationships.

    However, belief in sexual perfectionism was not associated with preference for romance media, but was, rather, positively associated with male gender. One interpretation of this finding is that romance media may focus more strongly on the ideally romantic nature of relationships as opposed to sexuality and that males are more socialized towards expectations of sexual perfection. It may also be that there are differences in sexual experiences that we could not account for in this exploratory work because we asked about relationship experiences and not sexual experiences within those relationships.

    Future work should clarify both romantic experiences as well as sexual experiences in relation to beliefs about sexual perfectionism.


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    Given the exploratory nature of the research, caution needs to be taken in drawing conclusions from the findings. Instead the findings should be used as a starting point from which to do more extensive research on this topic. Future research needs to be designed to test the specific processes that may lie behind the relationships found in this data.

    In order to properly test for media effects using a cultivation paradigm, future work will need to capture overall television exposure to see if it is related to beliefs about romantic relationship destiny. However, past research has shown that cultivation of specific attitudes may be related to consumption of specific genres, rather than undifferentiated television consumption Perse, Ferguson, and McLeod, However, cultivation theory, as traditionally used, does not lend itself easily to incorporating non-television media into the research, nor to asking how variables such as preference for, or liking of, media may influence exposure.

    Social cognitive theory Bandura, , on the other hand, may also help inform the results found and function as a basis for future work. Indeed, the theory provides a potentially sound explanation for how media function as sources of cultural information about relationships and shape the formation of attitudes about romance as well as subsequent behavior. To test the theory more precisely, we suggest that future work focus on assessing individual differences that may influence how and why an individual prefers romance media, how those differences may influence how much the individual exposes themselves to that type of media, if and how preconceptions may influence how the individual attends to, retains, and interprets the messages in the media, and if and how individual traits in people influence how they incorporate media messages into their own romantic lives Bandura, The study focused on college students because people in this particular age group tend to be avid popular media consumers, and there is no reason to assume that these preliminary findings would generalize to an older sample.

    People might become increasingly wiser to unrealistic messages portrayed in popular media as they have more actual relationship experiences themselves, although interestingly we did not find relationship experience related to these dysfunctional beliefs. In addition, given the correlational design of the study, no answer can be provided as to whether consuming media directly affects people's relationship beliefs, whether people with predisposed beliefs seek out media that confirm these beliefs, whether the relationship is bi-directional, or whether other unaccounted for variables are responsible for the associations found.

    Future research on the influences of media messages on people's relationship beliefs should also incorporate experimental methods that help tease apart causality. The potential for bidirectional influence — the pre-existence of beliefs about relationships leads to exposure to romance media and exposure to romance media reinforces beliefs about relationships — should also be explored using a combination of correlational and experimental designs.

    While we are excited about the future of such work, we are reserved in terms of what can be concluded based on these initial exploratory findings. We do, however, hope that preliminary work will inspire others to carry this line of research forward. Author correspondence to Dr Bjarne M. Holmes hw. Aiken, L. Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.