A figure known as "the satan" first appears in the Tanakh as a heavenly prosecutor , a member of the sons of God subordinate to Yahweh , who prosecutes the nation of Judah in the heavenly court and tests the loyalty of Yahweh's followers by forcing them to suffer. During the intertestamental period , possibly due to influence from the Zoroastrian figure of Angra Mainyu , the satan developed into a malevolent entity with abhorrent qualities in dualistic opposition to God.
In the apocryphal Book of Jubilees , Yahweh grants the satan referred to as Mastema authority over a group of fallen angels , or their offspring , to tempt humans to sin and punish them. In the Synoptic Gospels , Satan tempts Jesus in the desert and is identified as the cause of illness and temptation. He is later bound for one thousand years , but is briefly set free before being ultimately defeated and cast into the Lake of Fire. In Christianity , Satan is also known as the Devil and, although the Book of Genesis does not mention him, he is often identified as the serpent in the Garden of Eden.
In the Middle Ages , Satan played a minimal role in Christian theology and was used as a comic relief figure in mystery plays. During the early modern period , Satan's significance greatly increased as beliefs such as demonic possession and witchcraft became more prevalent. During the Age of Enlightenment , belief in the existence of Satan became harshly criticized. Nonetheless, belief in Satan has persisted, particularly in the Americas. Although Satan is generally viewed as evil, some groups have very different beliefs. In Theistic Satanism , Satan is considered a deity who is either worshipped or revered.
In LaVeyan Satanism , Satan is a symbol of virtuous characteristics and liberty. Satan's appearance is never described in the Bible, but, since the ninth century, he has often been shown in Christian art with horns, cloven hooves, unusually hairy legs, and a tail, often naked and holding a pitchfork. These are an amalgam of traits derived from various pagan deities, including Pan , Poseidon , and Bes. He continues to appear in film, television, and music. The word "satan" does not occur in the Book of Genesis , which mentions only a talking serpent and does not identify the serpent with any supernatural entity.
Some passages clearly refer to the satan, without using the word itself. The satan appears in the Book of Job , a poetic dialogue set within a prose framework,  which may have been written around the time of the Babylonian captivity. Zechariah contains a description of a vision dated to the middle of February of BC,  in which an angel shows Zechariah a scene of Joshua the High Priest dressed in filthy rags, representing the nation of Judah and its sins,  on trial with Yahweh as the judge and the satan standing as the prosecutor.
The idea of Satan as an opponent of God and a purely evil figure seems to have taken root in Jewish pseudepigrapha during the Second Temple Period,  particularly in the apocalypses. The text describes Satanael as being the prince of the Grigori who was cast out of heaven  and an evil spirit who knew the difference between what was "righteous" and "sinful". Most Jews do not believe in the existence of a supernatural omnimalevolent figure.
Rabbinical scholarship on the Book of Job generally follows the Talmud and Maimonides in identifying "the satan" from the prologue as a metaphor for the yetzer hara and not an actual entity. Each modern sect of Judaism has its own interpretation of Satan's identity.
Conservative Judaism generally rejects the Talmudic interpretation of Satan as a metaphor for the yetzer hara , and regard him as a literal agent of God. Satan is mentioned explicitly in some daily prayers, including during Shacharit and certain post-meal benedictions, as described in Talmud  and the Jewish Code of Law. The three Synoptic Gospels all describe the temptation of Christ by Satan in the desert Matthew , Mark , and Luke Then indeed he may plunder his house" Matthew The Synoptic Gospels identify Satan and his demons as the causes of illness,  including fever Luke , leprosy Luke , and arthritis Luke ,  while the Epistle to the Hebrews describes the Devil as "him who holds the power of death" Hebrews Jude refers to a dispute between Michael the Archangel and the Devil over the body of Moses.
Charlesworth , there is no evidence the surviving book of this name ever contained any such content. The Book of Revelation represents Satan as the supernatural ruler of the Roman Empire and the ultimate cause of all evil in the world. Revelation describes a vision of a Great Red Dragon with seven heads, ten horns, seven crowns, and a massive tail,  an image which is clearly inspired by the vision of the four beasts from the sea in the Book of Daniel  and the Leviathan described in various Old Testament passages. Michael and his angels fought against Dragon. Dragon and his angels fought back, but they were defeated, and there was no longer any place for them in Heaven.
Dragon the Great was thrown down, that ancient serpent who is called Devil and Satan, the one deceiving the whole inhabited World - he was thrown down to earth and his angels were thrown down with him. In Revelation , Satan is bound with a chain and hurled into the Abyss ,  where he is imprisoned for one thousand years. Despite the fact that the Book of Genesis never mentions Satan,  Christians have traditionally interpreted the serpent in the Garden of Eden as Satan due to Revelation , which calls Satan "that ancient serpent".
The name Heylel , meaning "morning star" or, in Latin, Lucifer , [c] was a name for Attar , the god of the planet Venus in Canaanite mythology ,   who attempted to scale the walls of the heavenly city,   but was vanquished by the god of the sun. In his apologetic treatise Contra Celsum , however, Origen changed his interpretations of Isaiah and Ezekiel , now interpreting both of them as referring to Satan.
According to the ransom theory of atonement , which was popular among early Christian theologians,   Satan gained power over humanity through Adam and Eve 's sin   and Christ's death on the cross was a ransom to Satan in exchange for humanity's liberation. Most early Christians firmly believed that Satan and his demons had the power to possess humans  and exorcisms were widely practiced by Jews, Christians, and pagans alike.
Satan had minimal role in medieval Christian theology ,  but he frequently appeared as a recurring comedic stock character in late medieval mystery plays , in which he was portrayed as a comic relief figure who "frolicked, fell, and farted in the background". The Canon Episcopi , written in the eleventh century AD, condemns belief in witchcraft as heretical,  but also documents that many people at the time apparently believed in it.
During the Early Modern Period , Christians gradually began to regard Satan as increasingly powerful  and the fear of Satan's power became a dominant aspect of the worldview of Christians across Europe. In the late fifteenth century, a series of witchcraft panics erupted in France and Germany.
By the early s, skeptics in Europe, including the English author Reginald Scot and the Anglican bishop John Bancroft , had begun to criticize the belief that demons still had the power to possess people. Mormonism developed its own views on Satan. According to the Book of Moses , the Devil offered to be the redeemer of mankind for the sake of his own glory. Conversely, Jesus offered to be the redeemer of mankind so that his father's will would be done. After his offer was rejected, Satan became rebellious and was subsequently cast out of heaven.
It was through this pact that Cain became a Master Mahan. Douglas Davies asserts that this text "reflects" the temptation of Jesus in the Bible. Belief in Satan and demonic possession remains strong among Christians in the United States    and Latin America. Scott Poole, author of Satan in America: The Devil We Know , has opined that "In the United States over the last forty to fifty years, a composite image of Satan has emerged that borrows from both popular culture and theological sources" and that most American Christians do not "separate what they know [about Satan] from the movies from what they know from various ecclesiastical and theological traditions.
Bernard McGinn describes multiple traditions detailing the relationship between the Antichrist and Satan. Seven suras in the Quran describe how God ordered all the angels and Iblis to bow before the newly-created Adam. In the Quran, Satan is apparently an angel,  but, in , he is described as "from the jinns".
Ibn Abbas asserts that the word jinn could be applied to earthly jinn, but also to "fiery angels" like Satan. Hasan of Basra , an eminent Muslim theologian who lived in the seventh century AD, was quoted as saying: "Iblis was not an angel even for the time of an eye wink. He is the origin of Jinn as Adam is of Mankind. When he was expelled from Paradise, Satan blamed humanity for his punishment. The Muslim historian Al-Tabari , who died in around AD,  writes that, before Adam was created, earthly jinn made of smokeless fire roamed the earth and spread corruption.
During the first two centuries of Islam, Muslims almost unanimously accepted the traditional story known as the Satanic Verses as true. The hadith teach that newborn babies cry because Satan touches them while they are being born, and that this touch causes people to have an aptitude for sin. Muslim tradition preserves a number of stories involving dialogues between Jesus and Iblis,  all of which are intended to demonstrate Jesus's virtue and Satan's depravity. Women are the ropes of Satan.
Wine is the key to every evil. The ashes I put on the faces of orphans, so that people come to dislike them. According to Sufi mysticism, Iblis refused to bow to Adam because he was fully devoted to God alone and refused to bow to anyone else. Muslims believe that Satan is also the cause of deceptions originating from the mind and desires for evil.
He is regarded as a cosmic force for separation, despair and spiritual envelopment. Muslims do distinguish between the satanic temptations and the murmurings of the bodily lower self Nafs. The lower self commands the person to do a specific task or to fulfill a specific desire; whereas the inspirations of Satan tempt the person to do evil in general and, after a person successfully resists his first suggestion, Satan returns with new ones.
Theistic Satanism, commonly referred to as "devil worship",  views Satan as a deity , whom individuals may supplicate to. Atheistic Satanism, as practiced by the Satanic Temple and by followers of LaVeyan Satanism , holds that Satan does not exist as a literal anthropomorphic entity, but rather as a symbol of a cosmos which Satanists perceive to be permeated and motivated by a force that has been given many names by humans over the course of time.
In this religion, "Satan" is not viewed or depicted as a hubristic, irrational, and fraudulent creature, but rather is revered with Prometheus -like attributes, symbolizing liberty and individual empowerment.
- Club Deluge?
- Global Security Watch—Japan (Praeger Security International)!
- Japan, its history, arts, and literature (Volume 2).
- Guide to water wells and locating ground water.
- Sociobiology and Epistemology (Synthese Library);
To adherents, he also serves as a conceptual framework and an external metaphorical projection of the Satanist's highest personal potential. Gilmore , further expounds that " Satan is a symbol of Man living as his prideful, carnal nature dictates. The reality behind Satan is simply the dark evolutionary force of entropy that permeates all of nature and provides the drive for survival and propagation inherent in all living things. Satan is not a conscious entity to be worshiped, rather a reservoir of power inside each human to be tapped at will".
According to Peter H. Gilmore, "The Church of Satan has chosen Satan as its primary symbol because in Hebrew it means adversary, opposer, one to accuse or question. We see ourselves as being these Satans; the adversaries, opposers and accusers of all spiritual belief systems that would try to hamper enjoyment of our life as a human being. Post-LaVeyan Satanists, like the adherents of The Satanic Temple , argue that the human animal has a natural altruistic and communal tendency, and frame Satan as a figure of struggle against injustice and activism.
They also believe in bodily autonomy, that personal beliefs should conform to science and inspire nobility, and that people should atone for their mistakes. The main deity in the tentatively Indo-European pantheon of the Yazidis , Melek Taus , is similar to the devil in Christian and Islamic traditions, as he refused to bow down before humanity. In fact, there is no entity in Yazidism which represents evil in opposition to God; such dualism is rejected by Yazidis. In the Middle Ages , the Cathars , practitioners of a dualistic religion, were accused of worshipping Satan by the Catholic Church.
Pope Gregory IX stated in his work Vox in Rama that the Cathars believed that God had erred in casting Lucifer out of heaven and that Lucifer would return to reward his faithful. On the other hand, according to Catharism, the creator-god of the material world worshipped by the Catholic Church is actually Satan. Wicca is a modern, syncretic Neopagan religion,  whose practitioners many Christians have incorrectly assumed to worship Satan. Much modern folklore about Satanism does not originate from the actual beliefs or practices of theistic or atheistic Satanists, but rather from a mixture of medieval Christian folk beliefs, political or sociological conspiracy theories, and contemporary urban legends.
Satan appears in several stories from The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer ,  including " The Summoner's Prologue ", in which a friar arrives in Hell and sees no other friars,  but is told there are millions. John Milton 's epic poem Paradise Lost features Satan as its main protagonist. William Blake regarded Satan as a model of rebellion against unjust authority  and features him in many of his poems and illustrations,  including his book The Marriage of Heaven and Hell ,  in which Satan is celebrated as the ultimate rebel, the incarnation of human emotion and the epitome of freedom from all forms of reason and orthodoxy.
Satan's appearance is never described in the Bible or any early Christian writings,   though Paul the Apostle does write that "Satan disguises himself as an angel of light" 2 Corinthians The mosaic "Christ the Good Sheppard" features a blue angel which appears to the left hand side of Jesus behind three goats. Medieval Christians were known to adapt previously existing pagan iconography to suit depictions of Christian figures. Italian frescoes from the late Middle Ages onward frequently show Satan chained in Hell, feeding on the bodies of the perpetually damned.
Detail of Satan from The Last Judgement c. Satan Summoning his Legions by Thomas Lawrence. Satan and Death with Sin Intervening c. Satan Watching the Caresses of Adam and Eve c. Satan Arousing the Rebel Angels c. Job's Evil Dreams by William Blake. Depiction of Satan c. Jesus drives Satan right away in this woodcut by von Carolsfeld. Do something to lessen the impact.
You could do the choice to let someone install it so you don't need to do it yourself. You can make a vow that you will pay the software back e. Or do something good in return humanitarian deeds to compensate your wrongdoing. Drop the course if your pricks of conscience are too hurtful. The question is if someone depends on you and hopes for your education and leaving the course will cause trouble.
Then you are ethically obliged to choose the lesser evil and if you have a family on one side which may need your help and on the other side a big software firm which could handle themselves In the general case that you disagree with an approach that your teacher is using I would just suggest that you speak to the teacher and raise your concerns. However, as there's a legal issue involved here, I think it would be appropriate to raise this with someone who is senior to your teacher. As this could potentially get the institution into trouble, your teacher likely has superiors who would want to know about this and have it put to an end.
You should also remember that there may be others in your class who find this objectionable, but aren't prepared to stand out from the crowd by saying so. Consider the question linked below, and always google for "open source software name " which can recommend alternative software for you. It won't be an exact replica but will do work for you. Sage is a nice alternative. I personally left pirated software use decade ago as it is exactly stealing. Best open-source Mathematica equivalent. I would not recommend using cracked Mathematica versions at the university.https://grupoavigase.com/includes/496/813-sexo-gratis-en.php
New Findings Provide Incentive For Cracking Dark Matter Mystery
Your professor should not encourage that. Apart from that general aspect I know that Wolfram has means to detect pirated software. Extensive use of cracked Mathematica versions is pretty common among students and even in some work groups and I know of a case at a university that Wolfram reached out to a department demanding that they stop using cracked Mathematica versions.
This is the best case scenario when getting caught but if the guys at Wolfram are not in a so generous mood things like that can get very expensive. If your university does not have licenses on pool computers, I would buy such an annual license to be save. Because once your university gets caught all involved parties will most likely be in trouble I say that without being an expert on the law. But even if one brings it to the attention of the department it might not improve at all or not very soon. I personally think it is unlikely that the department does not know about this issue and if they have not done something about it once they introduced that course I personally do not think they will do something now.
The last sentence is my intuition to that case and might be completely wrong.
I would say it is not likely that they give out licenses to students to use on personal computers. Mathematica can become a very helpful tool for your studies and I can say from experience it is worth the money. Sure it is not cheap and there are alternatives like python, sage and more but if you have to use Mathematica for the course there is an option to get it for a reasonable price and it will belong to you and you can use it wherever and whenever you want. I feel important to remind that this situation is likely to be illegal, and should not be promoted.
However, let us understand the complicated situation a student, and let us be proactive ; depending on the degrees of freedom, you can try proposition , or protection. If you have degrees of freedom , you can propose to your teacher a workaround with a free or open-source solutions. For instance, you can, with his help, attend the lecture with another software. This could provide a solution for the next-year lecture. Interpreted languages are not so different, transposition from Mathematica seems possible.
And learning novel languages is always beneficial. This could even be used as a project for which you could get the grade. You can find others at Best open-source Mathematica equivalent. If you have no degree of freedom , it is important to protect yourself from potential consequences. Since software installation leaves traces on computers, there are options:. I would report it to Wolfram using their contact form. If concerned about privacy, I would do so anonymously using a newly created email account gmail etc.
Satan - Wikipedia
If you are comfortable with the possible consequences, you might first open a dialogue with your teacher asking whether the course can be taken using a free equivalent such as Sage , Maxima or some other product that does not require students to infringe copyrights and give rise to worries about legality. Apparently installing a cracked version of Mathematica While you could try to stay at your university over your ethical objections by sidestepping this particular issue by buying the license, you would likely face another such problem in the future.
Get some Free alternative for Mathematica like SageMath or Maxima , for instance, and try to do the assigned tasks with it. Even if you fail because of some subtle requirements only Mathematica could match questionable , your attempts may become known and attract much more attention than some most likely lazy student just dropping the course. The course may be more difficult for you, but you will be ready to use the obtained skills anywhere, regardless if your employer has funds and intention to buy an expensive software or not.
There are a couple of mathematical systems I know really well because I have learned in the university. I cannot use them, because the commercial licenses are so horribly expensive that my employers cannot afford them. Surely step 1 is unethical, and probably immoral, but it is still your choice whether you want to use the crack, or whether you decide to get the student license which is in fact not unreasonably priced from my perspective.
In response to some comments: In my university it was not the responsibility of the university to provide resources, but students were expected to buy their own books and software. Teachers sometimes showed us how to use the copy machine, or how to perform a crack, but it was always our choice whether to follow their example. As a courtesy most not all software was made available on a few computers, but that is besides the point. Thank you for your interest in this question. Because it has attracted low-quality or spam answers that had to be removed, posting an answer now requires 10 reputation on this site the association bonus does not count.
Would you like to answer one of these unanswered questions instead? Home Questions Tags Users Unanswered. Our teacher is encouraging us to use cracked software Ask Question. So what should I do? Having a talk with my teacher or simply quitting this course?
Follow-up: Finally, I've decided to quit this course, because I think I can gain the same knowledge by learning Mathics , a free software recommended by some answers below. Thank you for all the awesome answers! Comments are not for extended discussion; this conversation has been moved to chat. There are genuine security concerns here - for example the cracked software may contain malware viruses etc - and these may not be immediately apparent. If possible install the pirated software in a virtual machine - that way you are keeping the illegal potentially unsafe stuff away from your primary operating system.
What I like most about this question is that it doesn't have a provably best answer, as all answers will be subjective; yet it is very much a question worth asking, we can all learn from the question and possibly the answers. Nothing wrong with the follow-up section, but note that you can indicate which answer you found most helpful by clicking the "accept" checkmark next to it - this will speed things up for future readers. While it is true that software cracking is inappropriate and even illegal, almost everyone around me uses cracked software That is really bad and I know it happens also in my country Italy.
However, I think there is a false dilemma in your question: So what should I do? Here I am using the Wolfram Cloud to plot a function: Use Mathematica on the Raspberry Pi slow If you happen to own a Raspberry Pi, you actually have the software as part of the Raspbian operating system.
Here's a screenshot of a simple command and a Wolfram Alpha query, using the free Raspberry Pi version: Emulate a Raspberry Pi super slow! If you need to satisfy these two constraints: no Raspberry Pi available offline access needed Then you can emulate an ARM architecture and install Raspbian on it. Talk to your teacher Finally, I think it's good to underline again the fact that you should really raise your concerns to your teacher and at the very least mention that you have to use one of these workarounds because they are not providing you with the needed tools.
Something similar happened to me in a few instances: In high school a teacher wanted to give me a pirated copy of LabView. Andrea Lazzarotto Andrea Lazzarotto 1, 1 1 gold badge 6 6 silver badges 12 12 bronze badges. Along the lines of alternative software this might be useful: mathematica. I myself am a SageMath user, but if students are taking a class on Mathematica they will probably be required to code in the Wolfram Language, not in Python. FWIW, I think this is the best answer. You gave several different alternatives to using the cracked software and you did a good job with your answer.
Allan Sep 15 '16 at AndrejaKo AndrejaKo 3, 1 1 gold badge 12 12 silver badges 19 19 bronze badges. Don't do this, for all those wondering China is party to the Berne Convention which means that cracking software like Mathmatica copyrighted in any other country party to the treaty, is Illegal. The Bernie Convention is mainly an agreement to recognize the copyrights of other countries the same as they recognize their own.
It's questionable if the "minimal standards" of the agreement even covers software license restriction cracking. It also allows the relevant jurisdiction to apply certain limitations or restrictions. Basically, it seems it has little value compared to the laws of the local jurisdiction. Dmitry Grigoryev Dmitry Grigoryev 4, 7 7 silver badges 27 27 bronze badges. As always it is a good idea to not leave any paper trail in preparation of illegal endeavors, let alone an electronic trail.
Of course I'm speaking in totally theoretical terms. I have never done anything illegal. Schneider Sep 13 '16 at Schneider I don't agree. The OP doesn't have to ask IT support to crack the software, only to install it. He also doesn't have to verify if he go the same fake license key as the rest of the class. The institution should bear full responsibility for their PCs, as long as users don't install anything on their own without permission. Schneider "I have never done anything illegal. Did you examine and understand all the million pages of legislature?
Do you remember everything you ever did? David That was a self-referential joke. Schneider Let's see through this step for step: Is this actually illegal? So check if there is a law that prohibits copyright violation. If you make the decision that it is immoral for you, your options are: Buy a license. Life is hard. Your decision. Peter Mortensen 2 2 silver badges 7 7 bronze badges.
Thorsten S. This is an excellent answer, except for the statement "You could do the choice to let someone install it so you need to do it yourself. If nothing else, this means setting quite a bad precedent to oneself, psychologically. Mapper Sep 12 '16 at Your first paragraph made me think about India which refused to pay the licence fees for some medicine, taking the stand that it is more important for them to get it to the poor rather than align with a philosophical "business practices". I take no stand in it as this is a complicated case but this is another aspect of your example.
Great cultural awareness here. But I think option f is lame: more unethical than doing it yourself. It's interesting to me that some commenters see having someone else install software is immoral. Would they also feel it were immoral to use software on a computer on which it had been set up?
Even in a lab? To me, it seems like the whole premise of IP is fundamentally bankrupt, eventually, especially with so many computers whose basic function includes copying and sharing data. Dronz: I think the point is not that "having someone else install software" is immoral as such; the feeling is rather that if you decide to consider installing an unlicensed copy is immoral, it would be just as or even more immoral to ask someone else to do the same.
The problem is directly or indirectly causing the activity perceived as immoral, which may or may not be the case for a lab that is already set up. Note that I base this consideration entirely on the abstract notion of an action perceived as immoral, to prevent blurring with the wider issue about appropriateness of copyright. Mapper Sep 14 '16 at It's polite, if it all possible, to try and talk to the teacher directly first.
Going above someone's head can sometimes mean that things escalate very quickly when in fact a much simpler solution could have been found. If the teacher is unhelpful then consider pursuing the issue up the chain. Even if the teacher agrees and changes this "policy" they've still encouraged students to do something that is of at least dubious legality while acting as an employee of the institution.
In some cultures, especially in Asia, questioning or challenging those in positions of authority like a professor can have dramatically bad consequences. If this is true for the OP then this suggestion may be a bad idea. Sep 13 '16 at That may be the case but given that the OP suggests it as an option they've presumably weighed up the consequences against the discomfort of doing something they find immoral it was doing something they claimed was illegal when I answered - the waters have since muddied Otherwise the victory over the bad old professor might be a Pyrrhic one, such as the professor being fired for breaking the law AND the student being demerited for challenging authority.
I've seen this kind of crap happen even in America. Shahensha Khan Shahensha Khan 1, 8 8 silver badges 21 21 bronze badges. But Sage is a poor "equivalent".